Sunday, January 31, 2016

How do Low Carb Diets Affect Glucose and Insulin Levels? Part 2

Brinkworth, et al (2009)



Baseline
Week 24
Week 52
Glucose (mmol/L)
Low Carb
5.7
5.5
5.4
Low Fat
5.6
5.4
5.3
Insulin (mU/L)
Low Carb
7.9
4.8
4.8
Low Fat
9.8
6.9
6.5
HOMA2-IR
Low Carb
1.20
0.75
0.72
Low Fat
1.42
0.95
0.89
HOMA2%B
Low Carb
81.4
62.3
63.7
Low Fat
93.2
79.2
75.7
HOMA2%S
Low Carb
105.7
163.7
184.9
Low Fat
83.3
125.2
135.2
All significantly differences within groups.  No significant differences between groups

Lim, et al (2009)



VLC
VLC
VLC
Fasting insulin
mU/L
3 months
−3.9 (3.7)x
3.0 (13.8)y
−1.8 (2.7)x
15 months
−1.5 (4.4)
0.5 (5.5)
−1.7 (4)
Fasting glucose, mmol/L
3 months
−0.1 (0.3)
0.1 (0.6)
−0.2 (0.4)
15 months
0.1 (0.3)
0.3 (0.6)
−0.4 (1)
x and y refer to refer to significant differences between groups

Foster, et al (2010)

Didn’t measure glucose or insulin

Iqbal, et al (2010)


Baseline
Change at 6 Months
Change at 12 Months
Change at 24 Months
Glucose (mg/dl)
Low Carb
157.9
-9.5
-14.2
-1.8
Low Fat
145.3
-7.3
-12.9
-4.3
HbA1c
Low Carb
7.9
-0.5
-0.1
-0.1
Low Fat
7.8
-0.1
-0.3
-0.2

Bazzano, et al (2014) 



Low Fat
Low Carb
Glucose (mmol/l)
3 Months
-0.10
-0.05
6 Months
-0.10
0.03
12 Months
-0.10
0.02
Insulin (pmol/l)
3 Months
-18.8
-25.0
6 Months
-20.8
-21.5
12 Months
-24.3
-13.9

How do Low Carb Diets Affect Glucose and Insulin Levels? Part 1

About 1.5 years ago I wrote a series of blog posts on the larger (≥ 100 participants) and longer (≥ 12 months) low carb trials.  In the next couple of posts I’m going to revisit and collate their effects on glucose and insulin

Stern, et al (2004)



Baseline
1 Year
Change
Glucose in people without diabetes (mg/dl)
Low Fat
100
103
+3
Low Carb
99
102
+3
Glucose in people with diabetes (mg/dl)
Low Fat
154
134
-21
Low Carb
166
138
-28
HbA1c in people with diabetes
(%)
Low Fat
7.3
7.2
-0.1
Low Carb
7.4
6.6
-0.7
Insulin in people without diabetes (mg/dl)
Low Fat
160
174
+14
Low Carb
153
104
-49
Insulin in people with diabetes (mg/dl)
Low Fat
229
201
-28
Low Carb
292
257
-35
Insulin sensitivity in people without diabetes
Low Fat
0.32
0.31
-0.01
Low Carb
0.31
0.32
+0.01
Bold = significant difference between groups

Dansinger, et al (2005)



Atkins
Zone
Weight Watchers
Ornish
Glucose (mg/dl)
2 Months
-5.1
-7.1
-1.8
-1.7
6 Months
-2.3
-1.9
-2.5
-0.4
12 Months
-1.2
-5.4
-2.6
-3.0
Insulin (uU/ml)
2 Months
-0.33
-0.22
-0.04
-0.61
6 Months
-0.71
-0.42
-0.50
-0.70
12 Months
-0.70
-0.58
-0.58
-0.88
Bold = significant difference from baseline within the group (no significant differences here between groups)

Gardener, et al (2007)


Atkins
Zone
LEARN
Ornish
Insulin (µU/ml)
-1.8
-1.5
-1.8
-0.2
Glucose (mg/dl)
-1.8
-1.6
0.5
-0.8

Shai, et al (2007)



Low Fat
Mediterranean
Low Carb
Non-diabetics
Glucose 6m
+2.5
+5.6
+2.3
Glucose 12m
+0.9
+1.4
+0.5
Glucose 24m
+3.1
+3.1
+1.3
Insulin 24m
-1.4
-1.8
-3.7
HOMA-IR 24m
-0.2
-0.3
-0.8
Diabetics
Glucose 6m
+4.8
-18.1
-7.8
Glucose 12m
+3.0
-23.4
-18.1
Glucose 24m
+12.1
-32.8*
+1.2
Insulin 24m
-1.5
-4.0
-2.2
HOMA-IR 24m
-0.3
-2.3
-1.0
HbA1c 24m
-0.4
-0.5
-0.9*
Bold = significant difference from baseline within the group
* Significantly different vs. low fat group

Davis, et al (2009) 


3 months
6 months
12 months
HbA1c (%)
Low Carb
−0.64
−0.29
−0.02
Low Fat
−0.26
−0.15
+0.24